In May 2020, during South Africa’s Covid-19 lockdown, Makhosi Keagile Kamo Malatji bought a ring light and second smartphone for online consultations, conducted over WhatsApp video calls from her home. Online consultations have become common among South African sangomas or traditional healers, who are legally recognized and consulted for treatment of physical illnesses using herbal remedies or for spiritual insights. Malatji said that during video consultations, healers use the same protocols as face-to-face meetings. Digital conferencing lets her access clients from other parts of the world but will never overtake in-person consultations in importance, she said. Instead, it will provide balance, as part of a hybrid system.

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