Shepherds and foresters can work together to prevent wildfires from developing into unmanageable disasters, research shows. The key is to mix feeders like goats and sheep in a semi-wild condition and provide an economic return for farmers. In 2003, the Spanish government created a program called RAPCA that has proved financially effective in reducing biomass. Andalusian shepherds got an initial 300 euros (around USD$340) plus between 42 and 90 euros per hectare depending on the area’s grazing difficulty. Today, 220 farmers graze their flocks in about 6,000 hectares of public forests. In 2016, Spain's Pau Costa Foundation created its “Ramats de Foc” (Fire Flocks) brand, which supports fire services in critical areas by adding value to meat and dairy products from animals grazing in those areas. Today, 22 shepherds, half of them new to the job, graze flocks in 600 fire-critical areas, clearing them of inflammable biomass.

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