Some 200,000 hectares (494,210 acres) of oil palm plantations in designated forests in Indonesia are expected to be returned to the state to be converted back into forests. Indonesia, the world's biggest palm oil producer and exporter, issued rules in 2020 that require companies to submit paperwork and pay fines by Nov. 2, 2023, to obtain cultivating rights on their plantation. While 3.3 million hectares (8.1 million acres) of the country's nearly 17 million hectares of palm plantation have been found in forests, only owners of plantations with a combined size of 1.67 million hectares have been identified. The government is still cataloging which of them are found in designated production forests where owners will have to pay fines but can continue to grow palm trees, and which are in protected areas and must be returned to the state.

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